Congo (now DRC), Belgium, USA, USSR, South Africa (NP), ANC, CIA, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), France, Algeria, West Germany (FDR), Italy, UK, Republic of China (Taiwan), Brazil, Japan, Turkey
Topic A: The Congo Crisis, 1960
The decolonization of Sub-Saharan Africa in the second half of the 1900s resulted in several proxy Cold War confrontations between the United States and the Soviet Union over the newly independent, non-aligned countries. The first occurred in the former Belgian Congo, which gained independence in June of 1960 following an uprising against the Belgian colonizers. The Congo moved from being ‘property’ of King Leopold II and facing horrific human rights violations, to a Belgian colony, to a ‘democratic state’ that was actually controlled and influenced to a large extent by external aid and many nations and organizations, all with their own agendas. In the newly-democratic Congo there was a series of rebellions, mutinies and two coup d’états, most with Congolese leaders but heavily backed by external forces including the US, the Soviet Union, Belgium, and Belgian companies, the CIA, the UN, and mercenaries from Apartheid South Africa, then South Rhodesia, and France (who had fought in Algeria). It was a combination of these interventions that created the huge turmoil faced by the Congo in the early days after its independence, which still affects the country today. Delegates will discuss the agendas of their states and the impact their actions will have on the future of the Congo (from 1960 onward).