AU, France, UK, USA, Russia, China, Haiti, India, Mali, South Africa, Eswatini (Swaziland), Portugal, Ukraine, Iran, Lebanon, Indonesia, Australia, Malaysia, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Kenya, Peru, UNODC, Ethiopia, Sudan, Philippines, Thailand, Canada, UN Women
Topic A: Preventing HIV and sexual/gender-based violence in peacekeeping and humanitarian missions
The key to understanding this topic lays in drawing the connection between peacekeeping and/or humanitarian missions and sexual, gender-based violence leading to a greater probability of spreading the HIV virus. According to UNAIDS, there are specific contexts in which women who have been victims of violence are 50% more prone to be carriers of HIV. During various peacekeeping missions, such as the seven current ones conducted in Africa alone, there exist chances of exposing both healthy yet uniformed working personnel as well as the people they are frequently in contact with to a plethora of risks. These include not only the transmission of disease but also events that may lead to it, namely sexual and gender-based violence. In November 2018, the African Union created conduct by which such risks could be avoided and stated that the member states of the United Nations should immediately implement the so-called survivor-centered approach. What is yet to be done, however, is the thorough analysis of the gaps, weaknesses, and possible solutions to end sexual violence in affected countries and therefore diminish exposure to HIV.
Topic B: The availability, access, and quality of HIV/AIDS treatments in prisons
In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of correctional system inmates with HIV disease. What is more, according to UNODC, there is a much higher worldwide population of the virus-infected individuals in prisons than in the populations outside them. This raises concerns in many areas related to health as the observable drug abuse as well as sexual activity within inmates may open new, easy ways for the virus to spread despite the fact that there are various opportunities provided by the prison setting to minimize behaviors that transmit HIV. The stigmatization and fear associated with being labeled as “HIV-positive” are additional factors that create further difficulties for the correctional system in establishing clear methods of prevention and everyday control of prisons and jails. United Nations have created a framework in which care, treatment, and support for the HIV/AIDS affected in prison settings was outlined and called upon the member states to focus on the improvement of not only the conditions in correctional facilities but also the accessibility to treatment services, funding, as well as proper staff training.