1/ Carrying Out the Repatriation of Cultural Artifacts and Intellectual Property
An artifact shows the workmanship of humankind from a specific period. These objects give evidence of the culture of its creator and users, therefore they are witnesses of the evolution of the human race. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) defines intellectual property as “creations of the mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs; and symbols, names and images used in commerce”. Consequently, cultural artifacts fall into this definition. These artifacts are very important to the culture,country or religion that they originated from.
Rival claims of culture artifacts represent some of the most pressing issues in the world today, appearing in the news on a weekly, if not on a daily, basis. Some of the highest-profile cases have involved disputes over material objects (Native American remains, Greek and Roman antiquities, works of art looted by the Nazis), with important repercussions for museums as well as the disciplines of anthropology, archaeology, and art history just to name a few.
Cultural relics have been a subject of debate at the General Assembly of the United Nations. In September 2017 they adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (DRIPS). With respect to the protection of intangible cultural heritage, DRIPS declared in article 31 that “indigenous peoples have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their cultural heritage, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, as well as the manifestations of their sciences, technologies and cultures, including human and genetic resources, seeds, medicines, knowledge of the properties of fauna and flora, oral traditions, literatures, designs, sports and traditional games and visual and performing arts. They also have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their intellectual property over such cultural heritage, traditional knowledge, and traditional cultural expressions”.
Nonetheless, the repatriation of cultural artifacts and the importance of their intellectual property is still a very important and a current issue.
2/ Improving Youth Participation in Poverty Reduction
It is rightly said, “the youth is the present, the future and the greatest resource of a nation”. Youth can both, directly and indirectly, participate in the poverty reduction. If a broad picture is looked at, youth participation and providing them the freedom of speech in practice would help them bring out issues that have been put under the mud by the elders due to their comparative less eagerness and the fire to bring a change. One such issue is poverty. These days school students are holding various workshops to educate the people about possible jobs that exist and ways in order to avail them. Additionally, there have been platforms developed by some children in order to allow people from remote/ less developed areas to gain knowledge and expertise in various fields. Not only others, the youth can help themselves and hence poverty reduction by properly educating themselves and learning in their respective fields. On the other hand, parents and other members of the society should also realise the fact that promoting these children in their respective fields is a lot more important than just putting the burden of early marriage and making their lives confined. The stage of youth is such that they have a tendency to learn more and there have been studies showing that with an increase in the level of schooling, there is an increase in the level of pay. Education is the greatest and one of the most powerful tools that can help poverty reduction, in an ample number of ways. New developments, technologies, investments are all achieved by education. Additionally, not ensuring proper schooling and skill acquisition would mean allowing them the free leisure time always, which is mostly unproductive. Studies have shown the more unproductive time and lack of proper schooling, the more is the rate of crime by youth in respective countries. Hence, it can be asserted that youth participation can be at the present stage or they can be trained to build a secured future, which would lead to poverty reduction.