Countries: Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Kuwait, Netherlands, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America
Topic A: Reevaluating the role of the UNSC resolving the Kashmir Conflict
Kashmir is a contentious region lying in the middle of the Himalayan Mountains, previously known as Jammu and Kashmir during the time of British colonial rule. With the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947, mass violence erupted between different religious groups. Most Hindus and Sikhs moved towards the area now known as India; Muslims headed towards Pakistan. Following the partition and several bloody religious conflicts, the Kashmir region became disputed as both new countries laid claim to the area. After three wars over the region there is yet to be a peaceful resolution; the last was in 1999, and ended in Pakistan withdrawing its troops, as highlighted in the 1972 Simla agreement. The Simla Agreement was signed whereby the countries resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations, and stated that the heads of the two states would meet after the signing of the agreement to establish durable peace and help resolve the Kashmir crisis. The envisioned meeting never occurred.
Today, the region is administered chiefly by Pakistan and India; China too retains administrative control over the Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract in the Kashmir region, which they dispute with India. Pakistan highlights human rights abuses in Kashmir while India claims that Pakistan funds militants in the disputed territory. It is the main source of conflict between India and Pakistan and is a key component in both nations’ politics, still unresolved 71 years after partition. Following their last resolution on the matter, Resolution 47 (1948), the Security Council has revisited the conflict several times, to little success. Delegates in the committee aim to break this pattern.
Topic B: Stabilizing Eastern Africa through the inclusion of women in peacebuilding efforts
UNSC Resolutions 1325 (2000) and 1820 (2008) were amongst the first to explicitly call for the inclusion of women in peacebuilding processes; from them the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) framework was built which outlines the current structure for addressing such matters worldwide. Research into WPS has shown that when women are included in peace processes an agreement is 64% more likely to actually achieve a peaceful outcome, 20% more likely to last over two years, and 35% more likely to last over 15 years. The region known as East Africa has experienced several decades of tumult and conflict, and still contains some of the most volatile political situations in the world. However, two nations in the region now have 50% or higher female representation in parliament, and local efforts to include women in reparational community work have shown to be quite successful. Having women be actively included in WPS may just be the key to stabilizing the region, and potentially even other regions worldwide.