Countries: Albania, Algeria, Canada, Republic of China, Colombia, Finland, France, Hungary, Mauritania, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Paraguay, People’s Republic of China, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Turkey, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom, United States of America, Zambia
Topic: Accession of the PRC to the ROC’s seat in the UN in the mid- to late 1960’s
With the communist victory in the Chinese Civil War (1927 – 1950), the nationalists fled to the Republic of China (ROC) to establish a nationalist Chinese government while the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was established in the mainland. A One-China policy was adopted by both governments, as well as several other nations where only one of the two nations would be recognized as “China”. The ROC held a seat in the UN since its foundation, and had permanent status in the UNSC, causing the USSR to boycott the Security Council in protest. In the 1950s and 1960s, countries like the UK, France, Sweden and Switzerland began switching their recognition from Taipei to Beijing as it became clear that the ROC was unlikely to recover the country they lost.
In 1960, the political relationship between the Soviet Union and the PRC, the two main communist states at the time, began to deteriorate in what became known as the Sino-Soviet Split. Due to Cold War tensions and politics, the USA began seeking rapprochement with China in order to control the situation in Vietnam and use them as a political tool against the Soviet Union. In the 1960’s, the majority of countries still recognized the ROC as the legitimate government of China. However, Albania lobbied for annual votes to recognize the PRC, but failed in a General Assembly resolution in 1668. In 1971 when the PRC was recognized by the UN as the legitimate government of China, the ROC’s permanent membership status in the UNSC and its voting rights were transferred to the PRC – never to be recovered.